3. Nursery Practices
Nursery management practices.
They should be applied foliar on the seedlings taking care that there is not an excess application of fertilizer on cotyledons and real leaves, it is recommended to give a light watering after each application.
The doses presented in the following table are grams of fertilizer per liter of water:
- Never fertilize with the substrate completely dry.
- Leave a day without applying between each fertilization.
- Do not mix fertilizers with each other or with other products.
- The pH of the substrate and fertilizer application solution should be between 6 and 6.5, while the electrical conductivity between 2 and 2.8 mmhos / cm.
- Always keep the substrate at field capacity.
Fungicides in Nursery.
These products can be applied as foliar or immersion as indicated, the doses given in the following table are in grams or milliliters of commercial product per liter of water:
|Week||Propamocarb hydrochloride 64%||Carbendazim 43%||Fosetil Aluminum 80%||Mancozeb 80%|
|2nd. (a foliar application in mixture)||–||one||–||2|
|3rd. (a foliar application in mixture)||one||one||–||–|
|4th. (a foliar application in mixture)||–||–||one||2|
|5th. (Immersion of trays to the root neck)||1.5||one||–||–|
- The pH for all fungicide applications should be 6.
- Give light foliar applications without supersaturating foliage.
- In the immersion treatment, ensure that the substrate is moistened uniformly and should be done on the same day as the transplant.
- Apply with thin drop conical nozzle.
The application of insecticides is based on the appearance of pests where possible with products of low toxicity. The following table will give the product recommendations for the different pests:
|PRODUCTS||CHEMICAL GROUP||CONTROL||Dose (gr or ml / l)|
|Imidacloprid 35%||Neonicotinoids||Aphids, Whitefly, Empoasca spp (control in adults and nymph states)
|Acetamiprid 20%||Neonicotinoids||Aphids, Whitefly, Empoasca spp (control in adults and nymph states).
|Thiamethoxam 25%||Neonicotinoids||Aphids, Whitefly, Empoasca spp (control in adults and nymph states).
|Deltamethrin 2.5%||Pyrethroids||Worms, Aphids, Whitefly, Empoasca spp (control only in adults).
|Lamda Cialotrina 5.15%||Pyrethroids||Worms, Aphids, Whitefly, Empoasca spp (control only in adults).
|Abamectin||Avermectins||Red, striped and white mite (controls adults and some nymph states).
|Spirodiclofén 24%||Ketoenols||Red, striped and white mite (controls eggs, nymphs and adult females).
|Spiromesiphen 24%||Ketoenoles||Red mite (eggs, nymphs and females); Whitefly nymphs.||0.5|
- No insecticide should be applied in formulation or mixture with oils.
- For acaricides it is important to regulate the pH of the solution to 4.5.
- For insecticides the pH of the application water should be 5.
- Before the transplant, it is suggested to add 1 ml / l of some neonicotinoid insecticide to the fungicide immersion treatment.
Alternative management of pests and diseases in nursery.
The new trend of sustainable agriculture marks the alternation of traditional controls with biological and organic products for better results.
For the management of fungi in nursery Trichoderma lignorum is applied at a rate of 3g per liter of water. The product must contain 2 x 107 viable conidia per gram. The application must be done in immersion or drench at least every 15 days.
Applications of the Paecylomices lilacinus fungus, before filling the trays, the substrate is moistened with a dose of 3g / l, the minimum product concentration should be 2 x 107 viable conidia per gram. This product will allow us to control any nematode that may occur in nursery. If inoculation is performed in the field, nematode attacks after transplantation are significantly reduced.
The principle of these products is the continuous inoculation of the medium and not as a corrector of the problem, in no case can fungicides be applied.
For the control of pests the application of extracts of neem, chili or chili, garlic, cinnamon, tobacco, melia, fique, chrysanthemum, onion, fig tree, rue and Bacillus thuringensis is recommended. These can act as insecticides, acaricides, nematicides and repellents, the application of the extract will depend on the concentration of the product and the type of pest. Always perform tests prior to full application to avoid poisoning.